In general there are far lower risks of pulmonary complications for regular cannabis smokers when compared with those of tobacco.
A 2015 analysis of six studies found little evidence that long-term or regular cannabis smoking was associated with lung cancer risk, though it could not rule out whether an association with heavy smoking exists.
Some users may experience an episode of acute psychosis, which usually abates after six hours, but in rare instances, heavy users may find the symptoms continuing for many days.
- in India and Nepal since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE.
The earliest known reports regarding the sacred status of cannabis in India and Nepal come from the Atharva Veda estimated to have been written sometime around 2000–1400 BCE.
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Cannabis is believed to be an aggravating factor in rare cases of arteritis, a serious condition that in some cases leads to amputation.
Because 97% of case-reports also smoked tobacco, a formal association with cannabis could not be made.
Light and moderate use of cannabis is not believed to increase risk of lung or upper airway cancer.