However, other icons from the same place and time still exist, for example the twelfth century Christos Acheiropoietos ("not made with hands") that was in the Assumption Cathedral, Moscow but is now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow (see below). Wilson, I., 1986, "The Evidence of the Shroud," Guild Publishing: London, p.110A. That icon has, by[Above (enlarge): Christ Acheiropoietos (not made with hands), ~1100 from the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, now in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.]my count, 12 out a possible 14 Vignon markings (since there is no throat for the transverse line across it, VM#13, to be depicted), including, as can be seen above VM#3, the upside-down triangle. This is probably not the original late 10th-early 11th century cross, but it is reasonable to assume that there was originally a Russian cross where the current cross is.
Angelo in Formis, Capua, Italy.]of the 15 Vignon markings found on the Shroud (see #10), many of which are just incidental blemishes on the cloth. a transverse line across the forehead, a raised right eyebrow, an upside-down triangle at the bridge of the nose, heavily delineated lower eyelids, a strongly accentuated left cheek, a strongly accentuated right cheek, and a hairless gap between the lower lip and beard ...".
This presumably is the source of the 11th century Byzantine legend that Jesus actually had one leg shorter than the other and therefore was lame.
As this form of the cross is universal among the Russians it must date from at least the beginning of the national conversion to Christianity, when missionaries in 988 came from Constantinople.
I am an Australian evangelical Christian in my 70s.
I am persuaded by the evidence that the Shroud of Turin is the burial sheet of Jesus Christ and bears His crucified and resurrected image.
Emphases are mine unless otherwise indicated.[Index] [Previous: "12th-11th centuries: Shroud's 1260-1390 radiocarbon date is against the preponderance of the evidence (3)" #11] [Next: "My theory that the radiocarbon dating laboratories were duped by a computer hacker #1" #13][Above (enlarge): A Russian Orthodox cross, dated second half of the 12th century (i.e.